Free forging is a forging method which uses a simple universal tool or directly applies external force between the upper and lower anvils of forging equipment to the blank so that the blank can be deformed and the required geometry and internal quality of the forging can be obtained. The forging produced by forging methods is called free forging.
Free forging is mainly used to produce forgings with a small batch. Forging hammer, hydraulic press and other forging equipment are used to process the blank and obtain qualified forgings. The basic process of free forging includes upsetting, drawing, punching, cutting, bending, twisting, staggering and forging. The free forging is hot forging.
Free forging process includes basic process, auxiliary process and finishing process.
The basic process of free forging: upsetting, drawing, punching, bending, cutting, twisting, staggering and forging, etc., while the three processes of upsetting, drawing and punching are most commonly used in actual production.
Auxiliary process: pre deformation process, such as pressing jaw, pressing ingot edge, shoulder cutting, etc.
Finishing process: the process to reduce the surface defects of forgings, such as removing the surface unevenness and shaping.
(1) it has great forging flexibility, which can produce small parts less than 100kg, and heavy parts up to 300t;
(2) the tools used are simple general tools;
(3) forging forming is to gradually deform the billet in different regions. Therefore, the tonnage of forging equipment needed for forging the same forging is much smaller than that of model forging;
(4) low precision requirements for equipment;
(5) short production cycle.
Disadvantages and limitations:
(1) the production efficiency is much lower than that of model forging;
(2) the forging has a simple shape, low dimensional accuracy and rough surface, high labour intensity and high technical level;
(3) it is not easy to realize mechanization and automation.