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What are the Forging Processes in Metal Forging?

In modern forging process, metal forming machines are utilized to make plastic deformation of metal billets by exerting pressure on them with the aim to produce forgings with certain mechanical properties, shapes and sizes. Then what are the forging processes in metal forging?


Before the industrial revolution, hand forging was the most common metal processing technology. For example, horseshoes, cold weapons, and armor were all forged by blacksmiths from all over the world. In the middle of the forge, there is a big furnace with a bellows beside it. When the  bellows is pulled, the wind enters the furnace, and the flames inside begins to soar. The iron to be forged is first burned red in the furnace, and then moved to the big iron pier for hammering by the blacksmith. In the forging process, the blacksmith needs to turn the iron by visual inspection continually. The iron is heated, hammered and quenched repeatedly until the desired shape is created.


Metal Forging Process

1. Process Cost: Mold cost (medium-high); unit cost (medium).

2. Typical Products: Hand-held tools, armor, vehicles, aerospace equipment, heavy-load machinery, etc.

3. Output and Corresponding Type: Small batch and single piece.

4. Quality: The granular structure greatly enhances the strength of the workpiece.

5. Speed: The speed of producing a single piece time is generally less than 1min, depending on size, shape and material.


Applicable Materials

1. Particular useful for ferrous metals which contain iron, such as alloy, and stainless steel.

2. Some nonferrous metals such as titanium, copper and aluminum are also suitable.


Design Considerations

1. The wall thickness of forging workpiece should be controlled within 5mm-250mm (0.2in-9.84in).

2. The weight of forging workpiece should be between 0.25kg-60kg (0.55lb-132lb).

3. Error of small parts should be controlled within 1mm (0.04in); error of big parts should be controlled within 5mm (0.2in).