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Common Materials for Forging

Materials used in forging are mainly carbon and alloy steels of various compositions, followed by aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium, etc. and their alloys. The original state of the material is bar stock, ingot, metal powder and liquid metal. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the metal before deformation to the cross-sectional area after deformation is called the forging ratio. Correct selection of forging ratio, reasonable heating temperature and holding time, reasonable starting forging temperature and final forging temperature, reasonable deformation and the speed of deformation is important for improving product quality and reducing costs.


Generally, round or square bar stock is used as the billet for small and medium-sized forgings. The bar material has uniform and good grain structure and mechanical properties, accurate shape and size, good surface quality, and is easy to organize mass production. As long as the reasonable control of heating temperature and deformation conditions, excellent forgings can be forged without large forging distortion.


Cast ingots are used only for large forgings. Ingots are cast tissues with large cylindrical crystals and loose centers. Therefore, it is necessary to break the cylindrical crystals into fine grains through large plastic deformation, and compact the loose center in order to obtain a good metal structure and a high quality forging mechanical properties.


To exert static pressure on liquid metal poured into the mould cavity, causing it to solidify, crystallize, flow, plastic deform and form under pressure. The required shape and performance can be obtained by die forging. Liquid metal die-forging is the forming method between die-casting and forging, especially suitable for complex thin-walled parts that are difficult to form by general die-forging.


In addition to the usual materials used in forging, iron-based high-temperature alloys, nickel-based high-temperature alloys, and cobalt-based high-temperature alloys are also available in forged or rolled versions. However, these alloys are relatively difficult to forge due to their relatively narrow plastic zone. The heating temperature, opening  and final forging temperature of different materials have strict requirements.