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Determination of Temperature Range for Metal Forging

1. The Definition of Metal Forging

The temperature range of all metals forge refers to a temperature range between the starting forging temperature (initial forging temperature) and the ending forging temperature (final forging temperature). The forging operations and principles of temperature range is that the metal should have higher plasticity and smaller deformation resistance within the forging temperature range. The forging can obtain the desired structure and performance. On this premise, the forging temperature range should be as wide as possible in order to reduce forging times and consumption, improve production efficiency and facilitate operation.

2. Methods for Determining Temperature Range of Metal Forging

(1) Refering to Alloy Phase Diagram

The alloy phase diagram can directly show the phase composition of alloys with various components in different temperature ranges. Generally, single-phase microstructure has better plasticity and lower resistance than multiphase microstructure. Because of the different properties of each phase, the deformation of multiphase structure is uneven. The matrix phase is often mechanically divided by another phase, so the plasticity is low and the deformation resistance is improved. When forging metal, the alloy should be in a single phase state as much as possible in order to improve the process plasticity and reduce the deformation resistance. Therefore, the temperature range of metal forging should be properly selected according to the phase diagram.

(2) Refering to Iron-carbon Phase Diagram

Generally speaking, most alloy structural steels and alloy tool steels have little influence on the form of iron-carbon phase diagram because of their low content of alloy elements. Therefore, the temperature range of metal forging can be preliminarily determined by the iron-carbon phase diagram. For aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, copper alloy, stainless steel and off-temperature alloy, it is often necessary to comprehensively use various methods to determine a reasonable forging temperature range.