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Why do Forgings Perform Better than Castings?

1. The forming principle of forgings and castings

Forgings are objects in required shape or with suitable compression force through plastic deformation to pressurize the metals. This force is typically achieved through the use of a hammer or pressure. The metal forging process establishes a fine grain structure and improves the physical properties of the metal. In the actual use of parts, a correct design can make the particles flow in the direction of the main pressure. Castings are metal moldings obtained by various casting methods, that is, the smelted liquid metal is poured into a pre-prepared casting mold by pouring, injection, suction or other casting methods. The resulting object embraces a certain shape, size and performance.

2. Reasons for forgings to perform better than castings

Metal can improve its structure and mechanical properties after forging. After the casting structure is deformed by heat treatment through the forging method, due to the deformation and recrystallization of the metal, the original coarse dendrites and columnar grains become the equiaxed recrystallized structure with finer grains and uniform size, which makes the original segregation, porosity, porosity, slag inclusion, etc. in the steel ingot compacted and welded, and the structure becomes tighter, and the plasticity and mechanical properties of the metal are improved.

The mechanical properties of castings are lower than the mechanical properties of forgings of the same material. In addition, metal forging can ensure the continuity of the metal fiber structure, keep the fiber structure of the forging consistent with the shape of the forging, and the metal streamline is complete, which can ensure that the parts have good mechanical properties and a long service life. Forgings produced by precision die forging, cold extrusion, warm extrusion and other processes are unmatched by castings.